How To Choose Living Room Sofa Manufacturer By Materials Part 2

What is the difference between cheap and expensive living room sofas ?

The previous article dissected the sofa frame and springs. Today, let's dissect the muscle of the sofa, the sponge. 99% of the sponges we use now, like plastics, are artificial materials synthesized by polymers. So why 99% sponge ? What is the remaining 1% ? There are natural sponges in nature, they are a kind of organisms living on the seabed, and there are many types. Until now, there are still people who collect natural sponges for a living. Natural sponges are mostly used as natural cleaning products. Since there are natural sponges, why not use natural sponges as materials for sofa sponges ? First of all, the output of natural sponges is very small and the price is high. In addition, natural sponges have large pores, are extremely soft and cannot be processed, and cannot be used in the production of sofa sponges. The basic material of artificial sponge basically does not appear much difference.

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So what is the difference between the 599USD and 1199USD sofas on the sponge ? The answer is the foaming process, sponge density and processing technology. What does the foaming process affect ? The pros and cons of the sponge itself. Inferior sponges can easily pull off a small piece as long as you pull hard with your hands. The rougher the workmanship, the lower the cost. A high-quality sponge, in general, you can't pull a small piece off. We do not analyze the details of the foaming process. We know how to tell the difference. Let's talk about the density of sponges that everyone is more concerned about. What kind of density sponge can be used to make a sofa ? Let's take a look at the national standard QB/T 1952.1-2012, the seat surface is greater than or equal to 25, and the other parts are greater than or equal to 20. That's right, in theory, as long as the sponge density of the sofa seat surface is greater than 25D, and other places are greater than 20D, then the sofa has already met the national standard on the sponge. And the general cheap sofa is indeed the same. What does the 25D sponge look like ? It is very soft and fluffy, but this kind of softness is completely different from the soft sitting feeling, wrapping feeling and comfort brought by rebound cushioning that you imagine. This kind of softness will not have any other feeling except that it does not make you feel hard. So how can you achieve the feeling you want ? Is it to increase the density of the sponge ? No, the feeling of sitting on a sponge with a hardness of 50D is a bit like sitting on a stone covered with cardboard boxes. So what to do ? This is about the processing technology mentioned above.

In order to make a sofa that allows you to sit comfortably, excellent sofa manufacturers have made very good craftsmanship on the sponge. First of all, use 45D or 50D high-density sponge as the bottom layer for support to ensure that no matter who sits down or children jump on it, they can play a good support and buffer rebound together with the spring frame of the sofa . Then, put a layer of 35D or 40D density sponge in the middle as a transition layer to balance the softness of the top low-density sponge and the hardness of the bottom sponge, and use a 25D or 30D sponge on the top layer to ensure softness and Envelopment. There is also a more advanced approach, which is to use a small feather or latex layer on the top layer to increase the softness of the contact surface and the comfort of wrapping. Of course, the cost you need to spend will naturally rise. Are there other sponge crafts besides this ? Yes, there is a relatively small or relatively ancient sponge craft. It is to add independent pocket springs in its heart. This kind of process can increase the resilience of the sitting feeling, but at the cost of losing the wrapping of the sofa sitting feeling, and the cost is not so low. At present, the three-layer structure is the most reasonable process choice for sofa sponges.

So the top layer is sponge, and the feathers and latex are more comfortable ? I don't know which sitting feeling is your favorite, so I can't answer you. I can only answer you, it is indeed filled with down and latex, the price will be higher than the sponge. As for whether it is the sitting feeling you like, the best way is to sit and experience it. The same approach also applies to the sofa by the package. What kind of stuffing will there be in the sofa backrest ? The overall fixed soft backrest is still a sponge inside. But generally softer sponges like 25D or 30D are used. If it is an independent cushion, many sofa manufacturers will choose the doll cotton when filling the plush toy. Doll cotton is actually a synthetic material, which we will talk about in detail when we dissect sofa fabrics. Doll cotton has good air permeability, and can also ensure full softness and resilience after filling. But its wrapping feeling is not good, so excellent sofa manufacturers have added small feathers to the backrest to reduce the rebound and fullness, and increase softness, breathability and wrapping feeling. Note that I'm talking about small feathers here, not down. So why add feathers instead of down ? Do sofa manufacturers want to save costs for themselves ? First of all, our pillows are for leaning or hugging comfort, not for keeping warm. Second, if down is added, the resilience will basically be lost. Once you lean on it, it will be like a deflated ball. Third, in order to ensure air permeability, the general sofa fabric will leave relatively large gaps in the weaving process, even if it is leather, there will be air holes in the back. So if it's down, it's impossible not to drill out. Just look at your down jacket and you'll know. So replacing down with feathers solves these problems. It also improves the various performances of the package, of course, the cost will naturally increase by one section. If you want to know if your cushion contains feathers, it's very simple. Pick up the pillow and squeeze it hard. If there are feathers, you will hear a crisp creaking sound, and its rebound must be slow, not after the doll cotton is filled, you press for a moment of rebound. At this point, our sofa sponge is basically dissected.

As for the many videos on the Internet teaching you how to choose a sofa sponge, it must be 45D. As long as you are not too hard, of course you can. For manufacturers, with one less process, the cost can be reduced. The density and price of sponges used in sofa production are generally proportional. More materials and craftsmanship are added for comfort, and the price will naturally be higher. In terms of the value of a single sponge process, a low-density single-layer sponge is less than a high-density single-layer sponge, less than a multi-layer sponge superposition process, and less than a multi-layer process with latex, feathers and other add-ons. There is also a kind of recycled sponge made from sponge scraps and some waste sponges. You really don't want to buy this stuff. If you dare to sell this stuff, the glue used for synthesis will definitely not be much better. It's important to save your life. It is usually used to resist the fixed sofa seats of commercial furniture such as restaurants and hotels. How to check the sponge ? General sofa cushions have zippers, you will know when you open it. If there is no zipper, it depends on your determination.

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You wear clothes every day, cover the quilt and sit on the sofa every day. Have you ever thought about how these fabrics come from ? Now we dissect the fabric of the sofa, because it involves clothing materials and textiles, it is quite difficult to dissect. Let's analyze it from leather and cloth. What was the first thing you saw when you picked out a sofa ? In addition to the shape is the fabric. Therefore, as one of the few sofa components that can be directly seen and touched, people unanimously put forward various demands for fabrics. And the major manufacturers are also very interesting to provide a variety of dazzling options. Let alone the color, just the names of various materials can make your scalp tingle. First of all, we are divided into two categories, leather and cloth. Leather is divided into first layer leather, second layer leather, ecological leather and faux leather. The top layer of leather can be divided into full grain leather and half grain leather. The leather we are talking about here by default is yellow cowhide. In addition, there are actually many animal skins. The second layer of leather is not classified first. Eco-leather is unique. Why is Eco-leather not included in faux leather ? There will be an answer later. faux leather is divided into microfiber leather, PU leather and PVC leather. In this classification, I specifically did not mention the word genuine leather. We found a problem, people have already developed a kind of obsession with genuine leather. But in fact, real leather is just a colloquial expression. With the blessing of modern technology, the definition is becoming more and more vague, and it has become a very magical word in itself. Why is it magical ? Let's take a look at the top grain leather and the second layer of leather.

Do you know how thick the cowhide just peeled off is ? At least 5mm. Native cowhide is composed of epidermis, dermis, fibrous tissue layer and fluff layer. The top layer of cowhide we hear is the outermost layer of cowhide obtained after the raw hide is separated into two or even three layers by a machine, so it is called the top layer of cowhide. Skin sensitivity and various logistics performances are optimal. But as the outermost skin of a cow, it is inevitable that there will be some scars. After all, a cow is a moving animal, so there is the concept of full green skin and half green skin. Full green leather, simply understood, is the whole top layer of cowhide without any blemishes. There are no scars or insect bites, the surface is simply processed, and the texture is natural and clear. It is also very close to human skin in terms of vision and touch, and can be observed with the naked eye if you look closely. The half grain leather has slight scars or insect bites on the surface, but the blemishes can be removed by grinding or processing. Grinding will inevitably dilute the natural texture of the cowhide, so the quality of the half grain leather has a lot to do with the degree of grinding required to remove blemishes. The selection rate of full grain leather is only 5% to 8%, and that of half grain leather is only 15% to 30%.

Here is an interesting name "Napa". The name originated in Napa County, California, USA. In 1869, the Leather Company in Napa County produced the whole top hide leather with special craftsmanship for the first time, so the name Napa leather was born. In addition, if you hear a name like full-grain leather, it can also be understood as whole top hide leather.

Is the imported top layer leather better than the domestic one ? I don't think scalpers born in China are any worse than foreign ones. But I have to admit that Europe and the United States are indeed a few streets ahead of China in terms of craftsmanship in processing cowhide, especially in a fashionable and top-notch country like Italy. This is also the reason why the imported top layer leather, especially the top layer leather imported from Italy, will be very expensive when used on sofas in China. Under normal circumstances, if you can use the sofa with the top layer of yellow leather imported from Italy, the other parts cannot be very low, and the cost will not be lower than 3000 USD. Since the top layer of leather is so expensive, we might as well consider the second layer of leather.

If you are smart, you may be aware of a problem. After the first layer of skin is peeled off, the surface of the second layer of skin has no texture. What should I do ? This is where the magic begins. Since there is no texture, wouldn't it be enough to create a layer of texture ? Smart humans thought of adding PU to the surface of the split leather or the regenerated beef fiber that may be used in the ecological leather below, and then embossed it. What pattern, what pattern to press. The cost of doing this is only about 1/3 of the first layer of leather, and it feels very close to genuine leather. If you are serious and take it for molecular testing, you will find that because the base layer is split leather, the test results show that the composition of 70% to 80% is really real cowhide. Then do you think there are leather sofas around 1000USD ? It is likely to exist, but it is definitely not the top layer of leather, and it is more likely to be ecological leather.

What is Eco-leather ? If the second layer of leather is replaced with a microfiber base material, and then regenerated bovine fiber is attached, there will be an ecological leather with a touch very close to real leather. What is Regenerated Beef Fiber ? It is the term for crushing cowhide leftovers into powder and then synthesizing materials. From the literal meaning alone, everyone should understand what it means. So what is a microfiber substrate ? It was first developed by Japan's Toray Group in the 1860s. The microfiber base material is a base material made of ultrafine fibers. Due to its impeccable physical and chemical properties and high dyeability, a large number of related materials have been derived in recent years. For example, the microfiber leather you often hear in these years. As long as PU is attached to the microfiber substrate, you will get the number one microfiber leather in our imitation leather family. By replacing the microfiber base material with a base fabric such as non-woven fabric, and then attaching PU, the PU leather in the imitation leather is obtained. If PU is replaced by PVC, PVC imitation leather is obtained.

The top layer is definitely genuine leather, but starting with the split layer, various materials can be covered. And then to the ecological leather covered with regenerated bovine fiber with a microfiber base material, do you think it is what people call real leather ? As for the value ranking, after understanding its essence, under the condition of non-complicated process intervention and the same quality of raw materials, PVC imitation leather is smaller than PU imitation leather, smaller than microfiber leather and ecological leather, smaller than split leather, smaller than half-green leather, and smaller than Whole green skin. Of course, different quality craftsmanship and raw materials will cause a huge price error. For example, some microfiber leather with excellent craftsmanship and materials will even exceed the price of some inferior second-layer leather. We must look at it rationally. Although the material changes brought about by technology are magical, but a material whose performance and texture are comparable to the top layer of leather, but the price is only 1/4 or even 1/5 of the top layer of leather, is it not good ? If you say that you must use the first layer of leather to have a high grade, of course, as long as your economy can satisfy you.

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So how to distinguish these leathers ? Believe me, the fire, dripping, and smelling mentioned on the Internet will not work according to these methods. These methods can be used to distinguish PVC or PU, imitation leather and top layer leather in the hands of experts. But today, when materials are starting to become magical, not to mention a layman, even an expert cannot use these methods to distinguish microfiber leather, split leather, ecological leather and top leather. then what should we do ? The best way, and the only reliable way we ordinary people can use, is to look at the section. Then some people say, the sofa in my house can't cut the leather, right ? It depends on how strong your curiosity is. If you are buying a sofa, let them provide a sample, and write the sample and the real thing into the contract. False sales can make them pay three for the fake, don't be afraid. As for the first-layer leather sofa that costs about 1000USD, just take it as a joke!

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Next is the anatomy of the fabric, which is the most difficult in the whole sofa anatomy. Because it involves a huge amount of clothing materials and textiles. If you have bought a sofa, when choosing fabrics, you must have heard of a name in the past two years, technical fabrics. Before dissecting all the fabrics, let's take this one out. Although it is called a fabric, its structure is a microfiber base material and a PU coating. What did you think of ? That's right, it is the structure of the microfiber leather when we dissect the leather above. They all add PU on top of the microfiber base material. The difference is that the PU layer of the technical cloth adjusts the raw materials and processes to make it feel more like cloth. So in a strict sense, there is essentially no difference between technology cloth and microfiber leather. Moreover, many major manufacturers have indeed classified technology cloth under the category of microfiber leather. Moreover, the texture of some technical cloth is already very close to leather. After taking out the special case of technical fabrics, we will officially enter the anatomy of fabrics. We will use different fibers to process fabrics through different techniques, and summarize them as fabrics. In terms of textile fiber raw materials, we are divided into two major parts: natural fibers and chemical fibers. Natural fibers can be divided into plant fibers, animal fibers and mineral fibers. Chemical fibers are divided into regenerated fibers, acetate fibers and synthetic fibers, and inorganic fibers. Light industrial and textile is a huge system, we cannot describe it one by one. There is no absolute good or bad between various materials. Today we mainly dissect seed fibers, bast fibers, animal fibers as well as viscose and synthetic fibers related to sofa fabrics.

What is seed fiber ? For example cotton. Cotton fabric is soft, breathable, hygroscopic, and has excellent coloring power. And hardly anyone is allergic to cotton. Abrasion and crack resistance are good. The sum of these properties makes cotton the most widely used natural fiber raw material in the world. But cotton also has a problem, shrinking. So smart humans thought of the method of mixing other fibers that will not shrink with cotton fibers to express the characteristics of different fibers on a fabric, the most common being cotton and linen blends. This is also the most common fabric used in sofa fabrics. Hemp is a plant bast fiber with a very long history, especially it has been widely used in Chinese history. Hemp has extremely high air permeability and fiber toughness. Is the most wear-resistant natural fiber material. But linen is non-hygroscopic and wrinkle-prone, and when it meets cotton, it's a match made in heaven. Cotton and linen blended fabrics not only have the characteristics of cotton, which is soft and comfortable, but also have the wear resistance and toughness of linen, and will not shrink. But even with this natural fit, there are certain features that people want but don't have. For example, flexibility. So cotton began to abandon hemp and began to mix with many chemical fibers.

What exactly are chemical fibers ? The three most widely used chemical fiber brothers are polyester, acrylic and viscose. The academic names are polyester, acrylic and viscose. Polyester fiber is a veritable big brother. Whether it is from history or the scope of current applications, even fabrics that look like cotton and linen on the market may actually be 100% polyester fiber. Believe it or not, take a good look the next time you buy clothes. Then why can it be the big brother ? It relies on super strong mechanical strength, high elasticity, perfect anti-wrinkle ability, excellent air permeability, and even quick drying. These excellent properties make him the darling of the textile industry. But this guy also has a problem, it is easy to get static electricity. It is not recommended for the elderly and children to use too much. So why is it easy to get static electricity ? Acrylic is also known as Oren or Kaimislon in some places, and there is another name that is easy to remember, called imitation wool. Since it is imitation wool, we dissect it together with the animal fiber wool below.

Then let's look at viscose fiber first. Although it is called viscose, it actually has nothing to do with glue. It is a kind of cellulose fiber extracted from natural wood fiber and processed through a series of processes. So it is a regenerated fiber in the classification of synthetic fibers. During the process of processing, one of the states is sticky and gelatinous. Hence the name viscose fiber. Its second-generation upgraded version, developed in 1965, is called Modal. In 1990, he had three generations of lyocell, Lyocell's English brand name TENCEL, and its Chinese registered name Tencel. So if you see tencel, it is made of lyocell fiber. They all come from one father, the Lenzing Group in Austria. At present, due to its good performance and excellent texture performance, and its natural birth, viscose fiber is more and more commonly used in the field of clothing and home textiles. Adding to blends is also very common. For example, it is mixed with the cotton mentioned above, or the wool mentioned below.

Among the commonly used natural animal fibers, wool is the most elastic, not to mention warm. Among high-end sofa fabrics, the texture of wool is irreplaceable. But the same shortcomings are also evident. In addition to being expensive, it occasionally loses some hair, and it is a bit irritating in summer. then what should we do ? The acrylic fiber we mentioned earlier appeared. On the basis of preserving the characteristics and texture of wool, it also solves the small defects of wool fabric. So what if I want to use wool instead of acrylic ? Blending, blending polyester, and viscose can reduce these problems. But there is another problem with wool fabrics that is difficult to solve and difficult to clean. Therefore, in terms of value and difficulty in washing, wool fabrics can also be counted as noble items. The same aristocratic supplies also have another animal fiber, silk. Speaking from the history of the sofa, the sofa itself is an aristocratic article. And the oriental silk, which was born in ancient China, was naturally bound together with this aristocratic article. Although it is rare to see a sofa made of silk on the market, it does not exist. For example, the silk sofa in Windsor Castle has no disadvantages other than being expensive and not wear-resistant. Expensive and wear-resistant, the two characteristics that nobles fear and need most.

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Do you think the anatomy of the sofa fabric is over ? Far from it. Didn't you find that the flannel fabrics that you often encounter have never appeared until now ? Because the difference between flannelette and other fabrics is not the difference in raw materials, but the processing technology. The yarn body formed by any kind of textile fiber mentioned above is pulled out of the yarn body by a napping machine, and the fiber of the yarn body is pulled out of the yarn body, and evenly covered on the surface, so that the fabric presents a rich and fluffy fabric, which is another fabric in the fabric. Category, flannelette. Silk velvet plus velvet technology, you have unlocked velvet, silk plus viscose fiber plus velvet technology, you have unlocked gold velvet, polyester plus different velvet technology, you can unlock crystal velvet, cashmere, polar fleece and Flannel or coral fleece. With acrylic fiber and different fleece techniques, you will unlock de velvet or snowflake velvet. Animal fiber plus chemical fiber plus fleece technology, you have unlocked mink fleece. In addition, various blending techniques plus fleece techniques, plus various naming arts, there are countless kinds of flannel fabrics on the market. And you may also hear all kinds of flannelettes named after places or nationals. The essence is that a certain factory in this place has produced a relatively unique flannelette through blending and fleece technology. Then name it and start delivery.

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Here I want to mention a special existence in flannelette, and it is also a material that has been gradually used in sofa fabrics in recent years. Its name is suede. What is suede ? First of all, muntjac is a kind of deer family animal. Because of the special matte texture and comfort of suede, it was popular in the French court in the 19th century. For the elegance of the nobility, muntjac is now a national protected animal in our country. So if you see suede on the market, it is basically imitation suede, and its production process is really complicated. First, it is polyester microfiber, sea-island silk gets the base material after complicated process, and then In addition to the fleece process, it is finally made of polyurethane with a special construction method. But these costs are worth it. The imitation suede basically restores the performance and texture of real suede. The texture and visual effect of suede are difficult to match with other materials. Are there any novelty fabrics like suede that can cost you more money ? must have.

After people are tired of playing with the raw materials and textile technology of fabrics, they turn their vision to three-dimensional, such as this 3D knitted fabric. There is not much innovation in raw materials, but in the weaving structure process, it can be said to be full of technology. This kind of fabric structure makes it very elastic, and at the same time, the air permeability and softness have directly increased to a higher level. Of course, there is also an excellent sense of visual technology.

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So what kind of fabric should you choose for the sofa ? You only know what you like if you see and touch it yourself. Just like when you buy clothes, if you decide to buy a fabric sofa, you don’t need to pay too much attention to its material composition. Due to the highly developed clothing industry, there will basically not be much difference in performance in the weaving process of sofa fabrics. You only need to consider the two factors of good looks and comfort. If you are the one who will cover the sofa with sofa cushions, you don't even have to consider the factor of good looks. Finally, in terms of price, I still want to give you a basic reference for sorting. Silk is larger than animal fiber blends, larger than complex crafts such as suede, 3D knitting, etc., larger than plant fibers and chemical fiber blends. But this is also relatively speaking. Most of the time it is because of the scarcity of its raw materials that the price rises, and it does not have much direct relationship with its performance.

The above is the difference in fabric between the 599USD sofa and the 1199USD sofa.